CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT, INTRODUCTION TO THEORIES OF LEARNING, ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION.
- (a) Concept of Education
- It is about the development of the individual and preparing him/her to be a full member of the society with the ability and willingness to contribute to nation-building as a responsible member of the society.
- Education is all about what a person should be in life and how to live in the community
(b) Education VRS Socialization
- Education is not the same as socialization
- Socialization is about how children/individuals should be made members of a particular society by virtue and knowledge which constitute the society’s culture.
- (a) Relevance of Educational Psychology to the classroom teacher.
- Individuals pass through stages of growth in life
- Each stage is characterized by certain behavioural traits
- Once the teacher is aware of the behavioural traits, it will enable him/her to adjust the teaching methods to suit the individual learners’ needs and have effective control over the class.
(b) The study of elective subjects in SHS
- This is influenced by the interest and ability of the students.
(c) Learning abilities in children
- This is influenced by the environment and heredity.
(d) Relevance of sociology to the teacher
- The teacher must have adequate knowledge on the culture of the society to enable him train the learner to acquire the required values, norms and beliefs so as to live in harmony with the people in the society.
- The teacher should also know the changing patterns and the causes and train the learners as such.
- Educational Technology
(a) Some skills provided by Technology to aid teaching and learning
- Power point presentation skills
- Skills to search for information on websites
- On-line teaching and learning skills
(b) Impact of technology on Education
- Makes teaching and learning very practical and interesting
- Provides more opportunities for research
- Provides skills for the use of technological devices for teaching and learning.
- (a) Aspects of education we study at college of education to become
- History and development of education
- Aims and principles of education
- Child/educational psychology
- Sociology of education
- School administration
- Educational technology
- Special education
- Guidance and counseling
- Test, measurement and evaluation
(b) Ways by which a teacher can develop himself academically and
- Attending INSET, Workshops etc.
- Further studies through the approved means available.
(c) Characteristics of a profession
- Requires a long period of education and training
- Their activities are regulated by professional bodies
- They are often guided by professional code of ethics
- They have disciplinary procedures and structures
- They are normally licensed to practises.
(d) Temporary skills of a teacher
- Emotional – deals with self control and love for the child/leaner
- Interpersonal – deals with understanding of colleagues for team work.
- Intrapersonal – knowing yourself. A skill most of us lack or fail to know
(e) Read on the following
- The 4 reasons for the removal of the Teacher-Trainee allowance in September, 2013 by the NDC Government
- The rights of a teacher
- Benefits that teachers derive from the GES
- Basic tools for a teacher
- Categories of teachers recruited by the GES
- Funding of teacher education
- Documentary identifies of a professional teacher
- Factors responsible for the falling social status of the teacher in the community.
- In teacher education, should the emphasis be on the pedagogy or content.
- Curriculum and Syllabus
- Refers to all the experiences children have in education to acquire knowledge, skills and values under the guidance of a teacher.
(b) Types of curriculum
- Informal/co-curricular activities
Note – find out what they mean and examples.
(c) Factors considered in curriculum design (some)
- National goals for education
- The needs of the learner
- Physical development of the learner
- Technology of teaching and changes in knowledge and skills
(d) Teaching syllabus
- Breakdown of subject indicating objectives, teaching and learning activities, TLM etc.
- Designed and produced by CRDD which was replaced by NaCCA
(e) Examination Syllabus
- Shows the number of papers for a subject, divisions, duration and sample questions for terminal examinations eg. WASSCE and BECE.
- Designed and produced by WAEC.
(f) Note: with the introduction of the Standard Based Curriculum at the Primary and KG levels in September, 2019, the Syllabus is now referred to as the curriculum where subjects become pillars, Topics become Strands, sub-topics become sub-strand etc.
- (a) Relationship between maturation and learning and its implication for teaching and learning.
- What is to be taught or learned should depend on the body structure, brain development and the nervous system of the child.
- Learning experiences must be closely related to the growth process of the child.
(b) Relationship between morality and personality and its implication for teaching and learning
- Once an individual lives in a society, he/she needs to live in a particular way accepted by the society
- It is the duty of the teacher to expose the individual to the accepted norms and values of the society.
- Each child should be seen as unique individual and attempt should be made to help him develop his personal characteristics to the maximum.
(c) Relationship between knowledge and skills and the implications for the teacher.
- When you have knowledge and cannot apply it to solve situational problems of life you can be said to be unskillful.
- It is therefore, important for the teacher to demonstrate practical applications of the knowledge being imparted. (The challenge me have in our world is the absence of the basic tools and devices for practical work).
- (a) Educational programme
- Refers to the combination of learning activities schools provide for the pupils/students to learn.
- It includes various subjects, practices, ideas, disciplines and co-curricular activities
(b) Education Process
- Refers to the interaction between the teacher and the learner in and outside the classroom
- It includes preparations to teach, teaching methods, setting questions, marking exercise and in calculation of moral values
(c) Read on the Role of the teacher in educational process which is the same as the role of the teacher in implementing educational policies and reforms.
- Read on the following topics:
- What is a school time table? Factors considered in the preparation of school time table.
- What is a morning assembly? Purpose of organizing morning assembly in our schools
- What is a staff meeting? Reasons why all teachers must attend staff meeting.
- Reasons why students disrespect teachers
- Categories of students/pupils who need special attention in the classroom.
- Possible reasons why students/pupils cannot write good notes in class.
- Activities which reduce classroom contact hours
- Distractions during lesson presentation
- What makes the classroom serene for teaching and learning
- What is meant by the ABC of the chalkboard
- what characteristics will you use to describe a/an great/best/ideal teacher in your school
- teaching and Learning materials (TLMs)
read on the following areas:
- the definition and types
- characteristics of good TLMs
- importance of TLMs
- why TLMs are absent in some classrooms today
- Lesson notes (Learner Plan)
Read on the following areas:
- Definition and main components
- Materials required for preparations of lesson notes.
- What do school Heads/Assistant Heads, Academics vet in Lesson Notes
- Importance of lesson notes
- (a) characteristics of children (some)
- They are curious
- They are playful
- They are creative
- They are ignorance of certain things around them.
Assignment: make personal notes on how the knowledge of these characteristics helps the classroom teacher.
(b) The senses
Read on the main senses and their relevance in teaching and learning.
- Teaching Methods
(a) Make personal notes on the various teaching methods looking at the advantages and disadvantages
(b) Choosing your teaching method, consider the following:
- The nature of the topic
- The age of the learner
- Time allocated on the time table
- The environment
Note: that we are moving away from teacher – centred methods to learner – centred methods especially at the pre-tertiary level.
(c) Principles of teaching new topic (some)
- Proceeding from known to unknown ie. from familiar to unfamiliar.
- Proceeding from easy to difficulty from simple to complex
- Proceeding from concrete to abstract ie. from real object to imaginary.
(a) Make personal notes on
- Composition and characteristics of continuous assessment (CA) and School Based Assessment (SBA).
- Why is it important to assess students.
- Means by which parents/Guardians can be informed of their wards/Children’s’ performance at school.
- Types of assessment
- Refers to the process of quantifying an individuals’ achievement, personality, attributes, habits and skills
- There are other definitions
- Refers to the qualitative aspect of determining the outcome of learning. It is the process of ranking with respect to attributes or traits
- There are other definitions
- Refers to a technique of obtaining information needed for evaluation purpose
- There are other definition
- Refers to a measurement or evaluation of pupils/students understanding or performance after a period of learning an activity
(f) Qualities of measuring instrument
- it tests the consistency of conditions and procedures for administering test.
- It tests the degree to which the test measures what it is intended to measure
- It tests the consistency of response to a test.
- Mode of Assessment
- This assesses a learner at the end of a period of study eg. End of term.
- This assess a learner continuously over period of time. It involves series of assessment
- Students/pupil are given questions at the beginning of the term or year to test the learners level of knowledge to be able to know what the student needs to be taught.
- Norm – Referenced
- This compares students of similar ages and levels to be a hypothetical average student.
- Criterion – referenced
- This measures student against a pre-established standard or goal.
- Introduction to Theories of language learning.
(a) B.F. Skinner
- A behavioral theory/operant conditioning theory
- To behaviouralist, competence in the rules of language is not as importance as the ability to speak it, speaking it is what makes language real.
- If a mother pronounces banana and the child repeats it correctly, the mother will simile and give the child more banana. As a result the child will find this outcome rewarding, thereby enhancing the child’s language development.
(b) Noam Chomsky
- Nativist Linguistic Theory.
- According to Chomsky, every child is born with an LAD (Language Acquisition device) that holds the fundamental rules for language. In other words, children are born with an understanding of the rules of language, they simply need to acquire the vocabulary.
- Language specialists advocate Chomskys’ theory as a more effective language methodology.
(c) National Literacy Acceleration Programme (NALAP)
- It was introduced by MOE/GES in June, 2006 and became operational from Sept. 2009.
- The policy is about using a bilingual (Ghanaian Language and English Language) approach to improve pupils ability to read and write in the early stages/grade (KG 1 to Primary 3)
(d) Check on the following and make personal notes:
- Jean Piaget Cognitive Theory of Language Development.
- The 4 main development stages:
Sensorimotor, Pre-operational, concrete operational and formal operational
- Cognitive Field Theory of Kurt Lewin (1890 – 1947)
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